North Korea said Friday it will discuss with the United States resuming the recovery of American soldiers killed during the Korean War. A foreign ministry spokesman told the North's official Korean Central News Agency that Pyongyang had accepted the United States' proposal on humanitarian grounds and work is already underway to arrange talks between the two militaries.
following essay was written by Dr. John Endicott, President of Woosong
University. This article appeared translated into Korean for a Korean
John E. Endicott,
International School of Business
Daejeon, Republic of
Chung Cheong Today 7 September 2011
Something of Value To
Both Koreans and Americans
I am often
asked what I like to read, and do I read much in this era of television,
Internet, CVDs and countless other distractions that are part of modern life in
Korea or America. When asked, I usually respond that I always have some kind of
reading material handy to fill any undesignated time. Usually you will find me
reading autobiographies, biographies, histories that focus on the rich heritage
of the states in Northeast Asia, economic-fiscal- or business-related
materials, but hardly ever do I read a novel. No offense to those who write novels,
I just want to spend my time enhancing the data that I can use as I go through
the life of a very busy university president.
are exceptions, and today I would like to discuss that exception. Most of my
readers know that I teach one course per semester at the University. Many
wonder why with all the other things that have to be done by a president that I
be teaching – my answer is why not? This is the most
wonderful way to interact with the leaders of the next generation and perhaps
leave a little bit of me with them.
The reason I
bring teaching up is my colleague who teaches with me and makes sure the students
stay on schedule when I’m called away. His name is Jeffrey Miller and he has
been in Asia for the last two decades. He has been a reporter for the Korea Times, in fact, for six-years, and
has also been a university lecturer. But, most of all he is a student of the
Korean War. Recently he put his love of history, his exposure to numerous
Korean and American veterans of the Korean War, and his advanced skill as a
writer of the English language together and completed and published his first
novel called War Remains.
When I saw his
book, I was immediately taken by the picture of a soldier on the front cover –
it is quite impressive –actually a photo of one of the statues in the Korean War
Memorial in Washington, D.C-- but I had no idea the story that he unfolds
within the covers would be so powerful. Remember, I am a retired Colonel and
have seen some very sad things, but I was an Air Force Officer, so my
experience is not the experience of a soldier on the ground. It is here that I
realized Jeffrey had done his work. His graphic depiction of the intensity and
futility of the battles as the Chinese announce their presence on the battle
fields with full-blown human wave tactics had an impact I personally was not
prepared for. In fact, as I read the book flying back to Georgia for ten days
home leave I could not put it down. The only times I stopped were when I could
no longer make out the page. My eyes were full of tears.
Let me give
you a slight introduction to the book, but I do not want to ruin it for those
who also read it. The story focuses on a soldier, Robert “Bobby” Washkowiak
from Illinois, who enters the Army at the time of the Korean War just after he
marries the girl of his dreams and ends up struggling to survive the North
Koreans, the Chinese and the winter. Which one was worse in 1950 is a good
question, but it was the Chinese who finally took his life.
Of course, in
the confusion of war, he could only be identified as “Missing In Action.” This
is almost worse than being declared dead as the family has no way to put
closure to the event. This is the story of his wife adapting to missing and
finally receiving the official word that since seven years had passed her
husband was now considered dead -- Dead, but no remains, no funeral, and no
The rest of
the story is one of discovery. Son and grandson find his love letters from
Korea and begin to intensify the effort to resolve the terms of his passing. Ultimately,
word is received and the cold February night of 1951 in a place called Hoengsong
is related through a series of fateful encounters with a surviving military
buddy. It is a story that unfortunately is one that over 7,000 families of
missing veterans relive on a daily basis, but especially at birthdays,
Christmas, anniversaries, and other special events.
Jeffrey Miller has done a wonderful service
to those families, and to all of us who intellectually handle the war, but need
to understand how the military from two great nations came to know each other
and came to bond in a way unknown to most. It is a restatement of the special
bond that exists between America and the people of Korea. And it makes the
point that this relationship did not end in 1953 but continues, and continues –
unlike any other in the world.
Service for US soldier killed in Korean War set this week
WASHINGTON (Yonhap) -- The U.S. state of West Virginia said Friday it plans to hold a special service this week for an American soldier killed in the Korean War six decades ago.
The remains of Cpl. James S. Murray were returned to his hometown from North Korea in the 1990s, but final identification was made only last December through investigation and DNA testing.
He was captured by North Korean troops while serving in the 1950-53 Korean War.
Gov. Earl Ray Tomblin issued a proclamation ordering all U.S. and state flags displayed at state facilities be lowered to half-staff from dawn to dusk on the occasion of the funeral service on Saturday.
"Today we remember Cpl. James Samuel Murray and the sacrifice he made for his country so long ago," said Tomblin. "It is an important reminder that our servicemen and women work diligently to protect the freedom we enjoy each day. It is my hope that the family of Corporal Murray will take comfort knowing he is now in his proper and final resting place."
The upcoming service comes as the U.S. seeks to resume talks with North Korea on the recovery of remains of American troops killed in the Korean War.
The U.S. recently sent a letter requesting a meeting with Pyongyang on the issue, according to the Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office (DPMO), affiliated with the Department of Defense.
The North has not replied yet, DPMO officials said.
Nearly 8,000 U.S. servicemembers are listed as missing from the war and the remains of more than half of them are estimated to be buried in the communist nation.
Joint recovery efforts between the Cold War foes were suspended in 2005, with Washington concerned about the safety and security of its workers.
Of all the articles, I would write about Korean War veterans returning to Korea, there are two, which stood out the most: the one about a veteran who saved his buddy during the war and other about a former POW returning to the bridge he had walked across to freedom when he was repatriated with other prisoners at the end of the war. Both of these articles were very near and dear to me because I was able to focus more on the personal side of the Korean War.
As a writer and a novice historian, these two articles were the kind of writing that I wanted to do. Writing feature stories about the human element or the personal side of the war came a lot easier for me than writing a straight news story—having to worry about a lead and space, not to mention a deadline. Ever since one of my former Eureka College professors, Dr. Sheila Bartle talked about writing creative non-fiction when I had visited the campus the year before, my interest in this kind of writing grew.
I’ll never forget that May night in 2001 when I sat down with a couple of Korean War veterans from San Antonio at the Hamilton Hotel in Itaewon, and listened to them talk about their experiences during the war. A couple of them became misty-eyed, when they recalled the horrors of battle and the men who did not come back. Of all the reasons why veterans would want to travel back to the countries and battlefields where they once fought, I would like to think one of them is the chance to lay to rest the ghosts of their past with men who were there with them.
On that night in May, many ghosts were finally laid to rest. Two of the veterans in particular, had one very special story to tell: how one of them had saved the other during a battle, which would become a turning point for the war.
Courage under Fire
CHIPYONG-NI, South Korea – Last week, on a peaceful verdant hill overlooking a fertile valley of rice paddies and fields sprouting an assortment of vegetables, Eduardo “Ed” Fernandez returned to the battlefield where he had been wounded 50 years ago.
This time he walked back up the hill.
“That’s where the airdrops landed,” Fernandez said, pointing to a freshly tilled field that had been readied for spring planting.
Fifty years ago, on that same field, Fernandez and other men of the 23rd regimental Combat Team of the US Second Infantry Division were surrounded by the four Chinese divisions. Airdrops in a valley just a couple of hundred yards from the perimeter re-supplied the besieged forces of the 23rd Regimental Combat Team and other units. Getting them would not be easy because a Chinese mortar had zeroed in on him and Lou Jurado, as they hurriedly recovered badly needed medical supplies and ammunition.
Severely wounded and passing in and out of consciousness, Fernandez was carried by Jurado—who also had been hit by shrapnel from the mortar—a couple hundred yards back to their perimeter.
They have a name for that: “courage under fire.” However, Lou was only doing what anyone would do in that situation when someone’s life was in jeopardy. 50 years later, time has not diminished the memories of that battle and of that camaraderie under fire.
Both Fernandez and Jurado were back in Korea for the first time to commemorate the Battle of Chipyong-ni and perhaps, heal some of those emotional wounds of 50 years ago.
“It’s a little scary being back here,” Fernandez said.
Jurado, on the other hand, had harbored mixed emotions as he walked across the battlefield where he and Ed had fought 50 years ago.
“It’s bittersweet,” added Jurado.
After being pushed back south in November and December of 1950 following China’s entry into the Korean War and suffering many casualties, U.S. UN and ROK forces found themselves on the defensive again, but that was all about to change at places like Chipyong-ni and Wonju about two hours southwest of Seoul.
It was on February 13, 1951, when the Chinese—following a cacophony of bugles, bells, whistles, and drums—first hit according to historian Roy Appleman with a “mortar and artillery barrage from the north, northwest, and southwest that hit the perimeter and inside it at the center. At the same time, enemy infantry ran into the outer defenses of trip flares, antipersonnel mines, and booby-traps in front of C Company at the north end.”
You don’t have to be a military historian to realize that what exactly was happening at that moment: all hell was breaking loose.
“They were coming at us by the thousands,” said Fernandez. “The Chinese were good fighters. They were somebody to be reckoned with. We were surrounded. I never thought we were going to come out of it.”
Twenty-four airdrops helped restock ammunition, rations, and medical supplies. Every available man helped in retrieving the airdrops. Regimental medics worked steadily to relieve the suffering of the wounded and helicopters shuttled in and out of the tight perimeter throughout the day, evacuating the most seriously wounded.
Others were treated and made as safe and comfortable as possible to await the opportunity for evacuation when the roadblocks ringing the garrison could be broken.
“Our supply sergeant had been killed; the mess sergeant had been killed. Everything was in an uproar,” recalled Fernandez who was then a Sergeant First Class. “I gathered the guys who were around me. I said we got to pick up this stuff before the enemy won’t let us.
“They missed the drop zone. The supplies landed in this open valley and the enemy had the high ground. I made the first trip with a couple of guys. One guy had been killed on the first trip. We had to get out of the way because we had this ammo on us. I was on my second or third trip when Lou showed up to help.”
Fernandez and Jurado made two trips together to retrieve the ammo and medical supplies. Jurado knew that by the second trip, the Chinese had zeroed in their mortars.
“I knew that we were either going to be dead before we made it back or we were going to get badly wounded,” recalled Jurado.
When the mortar hit, the first thing Fernandez recalled was that the blood on the snow looked like a cherry ‘snow cone.’
Jurado saw blood coming out everywhere when Fernandez was hit. His one leg was just dangling when Jurado tried to pick him up. Although one of the first things you’re taught in first aid is to put a tourniquet on to stop the bleeding, Jurado had no time to think of such things. When he went to pick him up, he fell down.
At the same time, Jurado didn’t know that he had also been wounded because he had been knocked down by the concussion. The only thing he could think of was to pick Fernandez up and get him to an aid station inside the perimeter.
“So I picked him up again,” said Lou, in a broken voice, as he held back the tears. “I said, ‘God help me.’ I picked him up and I could feel that he was moving. I told Ed that we’re getting out of here. I could see that one leg was just dangling. Somehow or another when things like that happen you get super strong, the adrenaline flows.
“I was able to carry him to the aid station. He had bled so badly that I thought he was going to die on me. So, I told the medics to give him so blood. I didn’t know if he was dead or not. To this day, I don’t know how I was able to carry him.”
But Jurado did and later, Fernandez was evacuated to a hospital in the rear. He didn’t know what happened to Ed who was immediately evacuated and whether or not he had lost the leg or if he had died.
“I was at the field hospital for three days. I thought, boy this is a terrific wound. I’ll probably get back to the States on this thing. They patched me up and sent me back to the front lines,” said Jurado. “I never did find out what happened to him. We finally met in 1995 at one of the reunions. He cried; I cried. The wives cried.”
Fernandez was one of the lucky ones. He was evacuated out, but his ordeal was far from being over.
“I had a number of guardian angels with me,” recalled Fernandez.
On his way back to the aid station, that ambulance that he was on was hit by enemy fire. Fernandez, who was sandwiched between two other wounded men, escaped being hit again; the other men weren’t so lucky. Fernandez thinks that they might have died from these rounds. Then, when he arrived at the aid station, he was mistakenly placed with the dead. A French Priest noticed that he was still alive and had him moved.
“They gave me some blood and put me on a chopper,” said Fernandez. Then that chopper got hit. There were two litters. The guy who was on the opposite one got hit a couple of times. The pilot was also hit. They were firing at the chopper. I guess you might say that I had a couple of narrow escapes.”
Fernandez would be in out of hospitals for the next couple of years. All total, he would undergo over 76 operations—minor and major—including skin grafts. He gets around these days with the use of a cane.
According to historian Max Hastings, “the Chipyong-ni battle represented not only a fine performance by American units, but also an important stage in the rehabilitation and revival of the morale of the 2nd Division, which had been so desperately mauled at Kunu-ri.” This battle was China’s first tactical defeat during the war, and served to bolster the flagging morale of UN troops.
“It was the first battle we whipped the Chinese,” said Jurado. “It made us feel good and boosted our morale.”
However, Fernandez and Jurado almost didn’t come back for this special commemoration trip. It was only after their family members persuaded them to come back as well as knowing that the other one would be here—that they finally decided to come.
“I had no desire to come back,” said Fernandez, “but my wife was instrumental in persuading me. Of course, I needed Lou to be here.”
The trip also helped both men deal with those ghosts from the past.
“It brought us closer together,” said Jurado whose kids played a big part in convincing him to make the journey back to Korea with Ed. “It was a healing process for the both of us—to know that we had come out of this.”
Fernandez was awarded the Bronze Star for his actions during the Battle of Chipyong-ni. Part of his citation read: “Sergeant First Class Fernandez during the ‘siege’ of Chipyong-ni, repeatedly and under intense hostile small arms and mortar fire, secured the supplies that were delivered by air from the drop zone and brought them into the 23rd Infantry’s perimeter.”
But some things are just hard to forget. Even 50 years later.
“It’s emotional knowing that in this immediate area you lost guys that you had known and were attached to,” Fernandez said with a shaky voice, “guys that talked about their wives and their babies. We lost so many good men.”
Fernandez, who wanted to remember this trip back to Korea and his special friendship with Jurado offered a small token of this remembrance and friendship forged in blood on the Chipyong-ni battleground.
Sitting in the lobby of their hotel later in the evening after they had returned from Chipyong-ni, Jurado pulled out nondescript beige stone from his pocket.
“Look at this. Ed gave it to me today,” Jurado said, his voice shaky as he ran his thumb over the smooth stone, a tear in his eye. “He picked up one for himself and me from the battlefield. I thought that was really special.”